PRIMA Environmental offers mineral analyses in support of Aqueous and Mineral Intrinsic Bioremediation Assessment (AMIBA) and biogeochemical reductive dechlorination assessment. These analyses include.

  • Acid Volatile Sulfide (AVS)
  • Chromium-Extractable Sulfide (CrES)
  • Weak Acid Soluble ferrous and ferric iron (WAS-Fe)
  • Strong Acid Soluble ferrous and ferric iron (SAS-Fe)

AVS, CrES, WAS-Fe and SAS-Fe are obtained via sequential extraction of site soil.  PRIMA’s procedures are based on methods developed by Kennedy et al (1998) and modified by Microseeps.  Results of the analyses can be used to evaluate natural attenuation of fuel hydrocarbons at a site (Everett et al, 2006) as well as the potential for biogeochemical reduction of chlorinated VOCs (Kennedy et al, 2006).  Engineered biogeochemical reduction of chlorinated VOCs (BiRD) is a patented process that is exclusively licensed to InfraSur, who provides detailed technical support, additional testing, and licensing to users.



Kennedy, L. Everett, J., Ware, J, Parsons, R and Green, V. (1998). “Iron and Sulfur Mineral Analysis Methods for Natural Attenuation Assessments.”  Bioremediation Journal 2(3-4), 259-276.

Everett, J., Kennedy, L., and Gonzales, J. (2006). “Natural Attenuation Assessment Using Mineral Data.” Practice Periodical of Hazardous, Toxic, and Radioactive Waste Management, 10(4), 256-263.

Kennedy, L., Everett, J., Becvar, E., and DeFeo, D. (2006). “Field-scale demonstration of induced biogeochemical reductive dechlorination at Dover Air Force Base, Dover, Delaware.” Journal of Contaminant Hydrology, 88(1-2), 119-136.


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