Many new, emerging, and proven reagents are available to treat a wide range of contaminants. Select a contaminant from the list below to see your options. You can also download a Remediation Options table for easy reference or scroll down for brief description of each reagent. Disclaimer: The list of treatment options given here is not all-inclusive. PRIMA makes no guarantee as to the efficacy of any reagent.
Select your COC:
BIOLOGICAL TREATMENTS – AEROBIC
Aerobic biodegradation in the sub-surface is often limited by the amount of oxygen present. Oxygen may be added to water through injection of reagents that decompose to produce oxygen, or by sparging with oxygen or air. Some oxygen generating products are described below.
EOx™ – EOx™ is granular/powdered calcium peroxide that provides a slow steady release of oxygen for aerobic biodegradation. It is available from EOS Remediation.
Hydrogen Peroxide (H2O2, HP) – Hydrogen peroxide decomposes to generate oxygen gas which may enhance aerobic biodegradation (1L of 1% HP produces approximately 3L of oxygen gas). Significant chemical oxidation is unlikely because hydrogen peroxide is a weak oxidant compared to Fenton’s reagent. However, in some cases, metals naturally present in water or soil could serve as catalysts, enabling Fenton-type chemistry to occur.
ORC® – Oxygen Release Compound (ORC®) and ORC® Advanced are proprietary reagents that, when hydrated, slowly decompose to generate oxygen. ORC® may be obtained from Regenesis.
PermeOx® – PermeOx® and PermeOx® Plus are proprietary reagents that, when hydrated, slowly decompose to generate oxygen. They may be obtained from Peroxychem.
Oxygen / Air Sparging – Oxygen may be added by sparging with air or with nearly pure oxygen, which may be generated on site via an oxygen concentrator.
Oxygen BioChem (OBC™) – OBC™ is a mixture of sodium persulfate and calcium peroxide than can destroy contaminants via chemical oxidation as well as biological oxidation. It may be obtained from Redox Tech, LLC.
BIOLOGICAL TREATMENTS – ANAEROBIC
Anaerobic biodegradation often be inhibited by the presence of oxygen. Various materials can be added to remove oxygen and allow anaerobic biodegradation to begin.
Electron Donors (general) – Addition of an electron donor (carbon source) can stimulate biodegradation in many ways. Most commonly, an electron donor is added to provide food for microorganisms that will consume oxygen which will enable anaerobic biodegradation to occur. Reducing conditions may produce sulfide that can precipitate various metals sulfides. Electron donors may be injected or may be applied as Permeable Reactive Barriers (PRBs). Electron donors tested by PRIMA include alfalfa, cheese whey, compost, ethanol, lactic acid/lactate, molasses, emulsified vegetable oil, and wood chips.
Anaerobic BioChem (ABC®) – ABC is a proprietary mixture of lactates, fatty acids, alcohols and a phosphate buffer developed to stimulate anaerobic biodegradation of chlorinated solvents. It may be obtained from Redox Tech, LLC.
3-D Microemulsion (3DME) / CRS® – 3DME is a proprietary, staged-release mixture of electron donors developed to enhance anerobic biodegradation of chlorinated compounds. It may be used with CRS® to promote biogeochemical reduction as well. Both materials may be obtained from Regenesis.
EHC® – EHC® is a family of products that combines a carbon source and zero-valent iron (ZVI) to produce very strong reducing conditions. This enables remediation to occur via anaerobic biodegradation and/or chemical reduction. EHC® is available from Peroxychem.
EOS® – EOS® is a family of emulsified soybean oil products (with or without added nutrients) developed by EOS® Remediation. EOS® provides a long-term carbon source for microorganisms, thereby stimulating anaerobic biodegradation.
HRC® – HRC® is a family of products designed to slowly release the carbon-based electron donor, which microbes can breakdown to produce hydrogen, another electron donor. Multiple electron donors the number of microroganisms capable of anaerobic biodegradation. HRC® may be obtained from Regenesis.
Newman Zone® – Newman Zone® is a proprietary mixture of fast and slow release electron donors that promotes anaerobic biodegradation. Newman Zone® can be obtained from RNAS Remediation Products.
Sulfate BioChem (SBC®) – SBC® is a proprietary mixture of magnesium sulfate and other sulfur salts deisgned to promote anaerobic biological oxidation of petroleum-related compounds It may be obtained from Redox Tech, LLC.
Activated Persulfate – Activated persulfate is an established technology for the oxidation of a wide range of organic compounds, though the efficacy of treatment may depend upon the activator used. Persulfate alone is a relatively strong oxidant, but activation generates the sulfate radical, which is an even stronger oxidant. Common activators include heat, divalent metals, chelated metals (e.g. iron EDTA), hydrogen peroxide, calcium peroxide, and high pH (pH > 10.5). Persulfate decomposes to generate sulfuric acid. The change in sulfate concentration and the effect on pH depend upon the amount of persulfate used and the buffering ability of site soil and groundwater, among other factors. Other potential secondary effects include oxidation of soil chromium to Cr(VI) and mobilization of metals due to changes in pH. The magnitude, duration, and significance of any such affects are site specific.
Catalyzed Hydrogen Peroxide (aka Fenton’s Reagent) – Catalyzed hydrogen peroxide (CHP) is a mixture of hydrogen peroxide (HP) and a catalyst that generates radicals, which are stronger oxidants than HP alone. If the catalyst is acidified ferrous iron, the mixture is known as Fenton’s Reagent. If the catalyst is used at near-neutral pH, the mixture is sometimes referred to as modified Fenton’s Reagent. Catalysts that may be used at near-neutral pH are often proprietary and include iron EDTA and VTX (available from Advanced Oxidation Technologies). CHP decomposes to oxygen and water (1L of 1% HP produces approximately 3L of oxygen gas). The reaction is exothermic, though the temperature increase may be negligible or significant depending upon the concentration of HP, the rate at which it decomposes, and other factors. Contaminants can be completely oxidized to carbon dioxide and water.
Klozur CR – Klozur CR is an all-in-one activated persulfate product available from Peroxychem.
Ozone – Ozone gas is a strong oxidant that can react with a wide range of organic compounds. It can treat contaminants in water, soil (saturated zone or vadose zone) and air. Ozone is injected as a mixture of ozone/air or ozone/oxygen and decomposes to oxygen gas so it may indirectly enhance aerobic biodegradation of contaminants. Possible secondary effects of in situ treatment using ozone include formation of Cr(VI) from soil chromium and formation of bromate from naturally occurring bromide. The magnitude, duration and significance of secondary effects are site specific.
Ozone + Hydrogen Peroxide – Ozone + hydrogen peroxide is an advanced oxidation process (AOP) that may be more effective toward some COCs than ozone alone (especially when used ex situ) because it can generate the hydroxyl radical, an even stronger oxidant than ozone or peroxide alone. The presence of hydrogen peroxide may also reduce the likelihood of Cr(VI) and bromate formation.
Permanganate – Permanganate is a moderately strong oxidizing agent that is available as solid potassium permanganate (KMnO4) or liquid sodium permanganate (NaMnO4). It is most commonly used to oxidize chlorinated ethenes (PCE, TCE, DCE and VC), but has also been shown to react with pentachlorophenol, the pesticides Aldrin and Dieldrin, and may react slowly with 1,4-dioxane. Permanganate reacts with natural organic matter and other oxidizable species in soil. The most common side effect of in situ treatment using permanganate is oxidation of soil chromium to Cr(VI). The magnitude, duration and significance of secondary effects are site specific.
PersulfOx® – PersulfOx® is a proprietary all-in-one activated persulfate product available from Regenesis.
Anaerobic BioChem (ABC®+) – ABC®+ is a proprietary mixture of ABC® and ZVI designed to promote anaerobic biodegradation and abiotic degradation of halogenated solvents. It may be obtained from Redox Tech, LLC.
Ascorbic Acid (Vitamin C) – The scientific literature describes the use of ascorbic acid for the treatment of acute chromate poisoning. Detoxification occurs via reduction of Cr(VI) to Cr(III). Laboratory testing conducted by PRIMA has shown that ascorbic acid can reduce Cr(VI) in groundwater.
Sodium Dithionite – Sodium dithionite is a reducing agent that can be used to indirectly convert Cr(VI) to Cr(III). Dithionite is injected into the sub-surface, where it reduces naturally occurring ferric iron in soil to ferrous iron. As Cr(VI)-laden groundwater moves through the ferrous iron zone, Cr(VI) is converted to Cr(III), which will precipitate at near-neutral pH.
Sulfur-Modified Iron (SMI-III™)/ SeleniumZero – SMI-III™ is a patented, granular media that has been developed for removal of arsenic(III), arsenic(V), nitrate, Cr(VI), metals, selenium(IV), selenium(VI), and chlorinated solvents from water. It is NSF Standard 61 Certified for use with drinking water and may be used alone or in conjunction with traditional adsorption media. Spent SMI is recyclable. The mechanism of contaminant removal depends upon the contaminant. For arsenic and metals, removal occurs via adsorption. For Cr(VI), removal may occur by adsorption of Cr(VI) or by reduction of Cr(VI) to Cr(III), followed by adsorption or precipitation of Cr(III). Removal of nitrate occurs via chemical transformation (reduction) to ammonia and other, unidentified products. Chlorinated solvents are presumably removed via reductive dechlorination. SeleniumZero is a form of SMI specifically marketed for the removal of selenium. Both SMI and SeleniumZero can be obtained from SMI Water.
Zero-valent Iron (ZVI) – Zero-valent iron (ZVI) is an established technology for the removal of many chlorinated compounds from aqueous solution. Removal is destructive, often resulting in complete dechlorination given sufficient contact time. ZVI can also destroy nitrate, convert Cr(VI) to Cr(III) and sorb arsenic and metals such as uranium. ZVI is most frequently used for in situ, passive remediation of groundwater. Common emplacement techniques include permeable reactive barriers (PRB), hydraulic or pneumatic fracturing, or injection of slurries. Sources of iron include, but are not limited to; Compass Remediation Chemicals, Connelly GPM, EOS Remediation, Hepure, Peerless Metal Powders, Redox Tech, LLC , and Regenesis .
GeoForm™ – GeoForm™ is a family of products designed to promote biogeochemical transformation of chlorinated solvents through enhanced anaerobic biodegradation, abiotic degradation, and the formation of reactive minerals. GeoForm™ is available from Peroxychem.
PlumeStop® – PlumeStop® is an injectable liquid activated carbon that sorbs a wide range of organic contaminants and promotes biodegradation. It is available from Regenesis.
BlastOx – BlastOx is a family of calcium-silicate-based products that can be added to soil to stabilize heavy metals such as lead and cadmium. It can be obtained from TDJ.
Calcium Polysulfide (CaSx, CPS) – CaSx is a dark orange-red liquid with pH ~ 11 that is used to treat Cr(VI) and heavy metals in soil and water. Cr(VI) is removed via reduction of Cr(VI) to Cr(III), while metals are stabilized via formation of water-insoluble sulfides or oxides. Suppliers of calcium polysulfide include, but are not limited to, Hepure and Graus Chemicals.
Cement – Addition of cement to soil can immobilize metals. Cement will increase pH, thereby forming metal hydroxides, many of which are virtually insoluble in water. Cement can also be used to solidify soil, thereby reducing the permeability of the matrix and leachability of metals.
CoBupHMg (Mg(OH)2) – CoBupHMg is a proprietary suspension of magnesium hydroxide and other compounds developed to stabilize aquifer pH during bioremediation. It can also immobilize some metals. It is available from EOS® Remediation.
EnviroBlend – EnviroBlend is a family of products custom formulated to stabilize metals. It is available from Premier Magnesia.
Lime (CaO2) – Lime can immobilize meals through formation of metals hydroxides. Addition of lime to soil or water will raise the pH, thereby forming metal hydroxides, many of which are insoluble in water. Unlike cement, lime will not solidify soil.
Phosphate – Phosphate can immobilize lead through the formation of lead phosphate, which is highly insoluble in water and not readily bioavailable. Phosphate is most commonly added as triple superphosphate (TSP).
TerraBond® – TerraBond® is a family of sulfur or magnesium-based products designed to stabilize heavy metals in soil. It may be obtained from Terra Materials, LLC.